RefSeq v2.1

RefSeq v2.1

Under the leadership of Mingcheng Luo and Jan Dvorak (UC Davis, CA, USA) and with funding from the US National Science Foundation grant IOS-1929053 and the USDA Agricultural Research Service CRIS project 2030-21430-014-00-D, a revised version of the reference wheat genome has been completed.

The genome assembly of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (IWGSC RefSeq v1.0; IWGSC, 2018) was revised using whole genome optical maps and contigs assembled from whole-genome-shotgun (WGS) PacBio SMRT reads (Zimin et al. 2017). Optical maps were used to detect and resolve chimeric scaffolds, anchor unassigned scaffolds, correct ambiguities in positions and orientations of scaffolds, create super-scaffolds, and estimate gap sizes more accurately. PacBio contigs were used for gap closing. Pseudomolecules of the Chinese Spring 21 chromosomes were re-constructed to develop a new reference sequence, IWGSC RefSeq v2.1. The revisions involved approximately 10% sequence length of the IWGSC RefSeq v1.0.

The RefSeq v2.1 data are available for use without restriction at the IWGSC data repository hosted by URGI-INRAE and at the NCBI under project PRJNA669381.


  • Zhu, T., Wang, L., Rimbert, H., Rodriguez, J.C., Deal, K.R., De Oliveira, R., Choulet, F., Keeble‐Gagnère, G., Tibbits, J., Rogers, J., Eversole, K., Appels, R., Gu, Y.Q., Mascher, M., Dvorak, J. and Luo, M.‐C. (2021), Optical maps refine the bread wheat Triticum aestivum cv Chinese Spring genome assembly. The Plant Journal. Accepted Author Manuscript.

Modification date : 16 August 2023 | Publication date : 11 December 2020 | Redactor : ic