Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal


Reference Sequence by Chromosome

Reference Sequence by Chromosome
The IWGSC has coordinated and endorsed projects to generate reference sequences for the 21 bread wheat chromosomes.

In 2006, the IWGSC adopted a chromosome-by-chromosome sequencing strategy based on physical maps and divided the work among 20 participating countries. 

Individual chromosomes and chromosomes arms were separated by flow cytometry, BAC libraries were generated and fingerprinted to produce physical maps and minimum tiling paths were then sequenced and assembled.


Project Leader: Curtis Pozniak, University of Saskatchewan, CA

1B & 4B

Project Leader: Etienne Paux, INRA, FR


Project Leader: Curtis Pozniak, University of Saskatchewan, CA


Project Leader: Frédéric Choulet, INRA, FR


  • Choulet et al., Structural and Functional Partitioning of Bread Wheat Chromosome 3B. Science, 18;345(6194):1249721. doi: 10.1126/science.1249721.
  • Glover NM, Daron J, Pingault L, et al. Small-scale gene duplications played a major role in the recent evolution of wheat chromosome 3B. Genome Biology, 2015;16(1):188. doi: 10.1186/s13059-015-0754-6.
  • Pingault, L. et al. Deep transcriptome sequencing provides new insights into the structural and functional organization of the wheat genome. Genome Biology 16, 29 (2015). doi: 10.1186/s13059-015-0601-9


Project Leader: Helena Salina, Institute Cytology and Genetics, RU


Project Leader: Hikmet Budak, Sabanci University, TR

6A & 2D

Project Leader: Klaus Mayer, IPK Gatersleben, DE


Project Leader: Hirokazu Handa, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, JP


Project Leader: Rudi Appels, Murdoch University, AU


Project Leader: Simen Sandve, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, NO


  • Integration of mate pair sequences to improve shotgun assemblies of flow-sorted chromosome arms of hexaploid wheat. Tatiana Belova, Bujie Zhan, Jonathan Wright, Mario Caccamo, Torben Asp, Hana Šimková, Matthew Kent, Christian Bendixen, Frank Panitz, Sigbjørn Lien, Jaroslav Doležel, Odd-Arne Olsen and Simen R Sandve (2013) BMC Genomics 14(1): 222. doi 10.1186/1471-2164-14-222


Project Leader: Hana Simkova, Institute of Experimental Botany, CZ


  • An efficient approach to BAC based assembly of complex genomes
    Visendi, P., Berkman, P.J., Hayashi, S., Golicz, A.A., Bayer, P.E., Ruperao, P., Hurgobin, B., Montenegro, J., Chan, C-K. K., Staňková, H., Jacqueline Batley, J., Šimková, H., Doležel, J., Edwards, D.
    Plant Methods, 12:2 , 2016
  • Chromosomal genomics facilitates fine mapping of a Russian wheat aphid resistance gene
    Staňková, H., Valárik, M., Lapitan, N.L.V., Berkman, P.J., Batley, J., Edwards, D., Luo. M.-Ch., Tulpová, Z., Kubaláková, M., Stein, N., Doležel, J., Šimková, H.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 128: 1373-1383, 2015
  • BioNano genome mapping of individual chromosomes supports physical mapping and sequence assembly in complex plant genomes
    Staňková, H., Hastie, A.R., Chan, S., Vrána, J., Tulpová, Z., Kubaláková, M., Visendi, P., Hayashi, S., Luo, M., Batley, J., Edwards, D., Doležel, J. and Šimková, H. (2015)
    Plant Biotechnol. J., doi: 10.1111/pbi.12513