Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal


Webinar: Recombination and chromatin landscapes in the wheat genome

Recombination and chromatin landscapes in the wheat genome
On 27 January 2022, the IWGSC organized a webinar entitled "Recombination and chromatin landscapes in the wheat genome" presented by Ian Henderson (University of Cambridge, UK)


Ian Henderson, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, UK


The hexaploid bread wheat genome comprises over 16 gigabases of sequence across 21 chromosomes. Meiotic crossovers are highly polarized along the chromosomes, with elevation in the gene-dense distal regions and suppression in the Gypsy retrotransposon-dense centromere-proximal regions. We profiled the genomic landscapes of the meiotic recombinase DMC1 and the chromosome axis protein ASY1 in wheat and investigated their relationships with crossovers, chromatin state, and genetic diversity. DMC1 and ASY1 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed strong co-enrichment in the distal, crossover-active regions of the wheat chromosomes. Distal ChIP-seq enrichment is consistent with spatiotemporally biased cytological immunolocalization of DMC1 and ASY1 close to the telomeres during meiotic prophase I. DMC1 and ASY1 ChIP-seq peaks show significant overlap with genes and transposable elements in the Mariner and Mutator superfamilies. However, DMC1 and ASY1 ChIP-seq peaks were detected along the length of each chromosome, including in low-crossover regions. At the fine scale, crossover elevation at DMC1 and ASY1 peaks and genes correlates with enrichment of the Polycomb histone modification H3K27me3. This indicates a role for facultative heterochromatin, coincident with high DMC1 and ASY1, in promoting crossovers in wheat and is reflected in distalized H3K27me3 enrichment observed via ChIP-seq and immunocytology. Genes with elevated crossover rates and high DMC1 and ASY1 ChIP-seq signals are overrepresented for defense-response and immunity annotations, have higher sequence polymorphism, and exhibit signatures of selection. Our findings are consistent with meiotic recombination promoting genetic diversity, shaping host–pathogen co-evolution, and accelerating adaptation by increasing the efficiency of selection.


  • Tock, A. J., Holland, D. M., Jiang, W., Osman, K., Sanchez-Moran, E., Higgins, J. D., Edwards, K. J., Uauy, C., Franklin, F., & Henderson, I. R. (2021). Crossover-active regions of the wheat genome are distinguished by DMC1, the chromosome axis, H3K27me3, and signatures of adaptation. Genome research, 31(9), 1614–1628.


Download documents